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Traducció en anglès de perífrasis verbals catalanes

Les perífrasis verbals són estructures formades per un verb auxiliar (conjugat), una preposició (optativa) i un verb en forma d'infinitiu, gerundi o participi. El conjunt té sovint un significat no literal i, per tant, la traducció en anglès d'aquestes perífrasis s'ha d'aprendre amb la pràctica. Heus ací uns quants exemples d'aquestes expressions amb les traducions corresponents en anglès:

acabar de + infinitiu [fa poc] = have just+participi
  Acabem de sopar [no en el sentit de «Estem acabant...»].
  We've just had dinner.
  Acabava de penjar quan has trucat.
  I had just hung up when you called.

no acabar de + infinitiu [no arribar a] = not quite + verb
  No acabo d'entendre't.
  I cannot quite understand you.
  No acabava de funcionar.
  It didn't quite work.

(no) acabar de + infinitiu [terminatiu] = finish+gerundi
  Marxarem quan hagi acabat de parlar.
  We'll leave when he has finished speaking.
  Encara no ha acabat de vestir-se.
  She hasn't finished dressing yet.

acabar (per+inf.) o + gerundi = end up + gerundi
  Acabaran fent el ruc, com sempre.
  They'll end up playing the fool, as usual.
  Vam acabar quedant-nos a casa.
  We ended up staying home.
  Va acabar (acceptant / per acceptar) que no tenia raó.
  He ended up admitting that he was wrong.

acostumar a + infinitiu [present] = usually+verb
  Acostumen a dinar tard.
  They usually have lunch late (have a late lunch).
  No acostumo a llegir novel•les.
  I don't usually read novels.

acostumar a + infinitiu [imperfet] = (used to + infinitiu / usually+verb)
  Acostumava a passar l'estiu a Su.
  I (used to spend / usually spent) the summer in Su.
  La policia no acostumava a fer-los parar.
  The police didn't (use to / usually) make them stop.

acostumar-se a + infinitiu =get used to + gerundi
  M'estic acostumant a viure sol.
  I'm getting used to living alone.
  No m'acostumaré mai a dur corbata.
  I'll never get used to wearing a tie.

arribar a + infinitiu [aconseguir] = manage + infinitiu to
  Arribarem a fer que es posin d'acord.
  We'll manage to get them to reach an agreement.
  No arribàvem a trobar aparcament.
  We couldn't manage to find a place to park.

arribar a + infinitiu [acabar] = end up + gerundi
  El projecte no es va arribar a fer.
  The project ended up not being finished.
  Vam arribar a prendre una decisió difícil.
  We ended up making a tough decision.

atrevir-se a + infinitiu [afirmatiu] = dare + infinitiu to
  Es va atrevir a travessar la cresta.
  He dared to cross the ridge.
  Si s'atreveix a dir una mentida, ho sabrem.
  If he dares to tell a lie, we'll know.

atrevir-se a + infinitiu [negatiu]= dare + infinitiu simple
  No m'atreveixo a anar-hi de nit.
  I don't dare go there at night.
  No ens atrevíem a dir res.
  We didn't dare say anything.
  Frase feta: «How dare you + infinitiu» = «Com t'atreveixes a + infinitiu».
    Com t'atreveixes a dir això?
    How dare you say this?

avenir-se a + infinitiu = agree + infinitiu to
  S'avingué a venir cada dia.
  They agreed to come every day.
  Penso que s'avindran a negociar de bona fe.
  I think they'll agree to negotiate in good faith.

començar per + infinitiu = begin/start by + gerundi
  Comença per netejar el garatge.
  Begin by cleaning out the garage.
  Hauries de començar per dir_li què sents quan la veus.
  You should start by telling her what you feel when you see her.

continuar+gerundi = continue + (gerundi / infinitiu to); keep+gerundi
  Continuaven conduint malgrat la tempesta.
  They (continued [driving / to drive] / kept driving) in spite of the storm.

dedicar-se a + infinitiu = be dedicated to + gerundi
  La primera sessió va dedicada a ensenyar meditació.
  The first session is dedicated to teaching meditation.
  Frase feta: A què es dedica? = What does he do?

deixar de + infinitiu [puntual] = stop + gerundi
  El programa ha deixat de funcionar.
  The program has stopped working.
  Deixa de plorar i anem-nos-en!
  Stop crying and let's get going!

deixar de + infinitiu [general]= (quit / give up) + gerundi
  Quan deixaràs de fumar?
  When are you going to (quit / give up) smoking?
  Vull deixar de treballar d'aquí a vuit anys.
  I want to (quit / give up) working in eight years.

deixar+infinitiu = let+infinitiu
  Deixa'l fer, que ja és prou gran.
  Let him go ahead, he's old enough.
  Van deixar escapar-se el pres.
  They let the prisoner escape.

deure+infinitiu = must+infinitiu
  Deuen tenir molts diners.
  They must have a lot of money.
  No em deus haver sentit bé.
  You must not have heard me well.
  No en devien saber res.
  They must not have known anything about it.

donar per+participi = consider+participi
  No podem donar per guanyada la batalla contra la SIDA.
  We cannot consider the battle against AIDS won.
  Frase feta: donar per fet = take for granted

entretenir-se a + infinitiu = take the time + infinitiu to
  Es va entretenir a planxar els llençols.
  He took the time to iron his sheets.

esperar+infinitiu = hope/expect + infinitiu to
  Espero arribar a l'hora.
  I hope/expect to arrive on time.
  No esperava perdre.
  I wasn't expecting to lose.

estar-se de + infinitiu = refrain from + gerundi
  M'ha ordenat que m'estigui de menjar porc.
  He's ordered me to refrain from eating pork.

fer+infinitiu = make/have + infinitiu
  Li hem fet dir la veritat.
  We made him tell the truth.
  He fet posar reixes a les finestres.
  I've had bars put on the windows.

forçar a + infinitiu = force + infinitiu to
  El forçaran a dimitir.
  They'll force him to (resign / step down).

guardar-se de + infinitiu = keep from + gerundi
  S'ha guardat de repetir l'experiència.
  He's kept from repeating the experience.
  Frase feta: Te'n guardaràs prou! = Don't even consider it!

maldar per + infinitiu = strive strove striven + infnitiu to
  Maldava per fer_se escoltar.
  He strove to make himself heard.

mirar de + infinitiu = try + infinitiu to
  Fa temps que miren de tenir un fill.
  They've been trying to have a baby for a long time.

moure a + infinitiu = prompt + infinitiu to
  Què l'ha mogut a fer això?
  What prompted him to do this?

negar-se a + infinitiu = refuse + infinitiu to
  S'ha negat a firmar.
  He has refused to sign.

obligar a + infinitiu = compel + infinitiu to
  M'obligaren a romandre-hi.
  They compelled me to remain (there).

parar de + infinitiu = stop+gerundi
  A veure quan pararàs de xerrar.
  I wonder when you'll stop chattering.

pensar+infinitiu = plan + infinitiu to
  Pensem sortir a les sis.
  We're planning to leave at six.

pensar a + infinitiu = remember + infinitiu to
  No he pensat a dir-li-ho.
  I didn't remember to tell him.

posar-se a + infinitiu = begin/start + (infinitiu to / gerundi)
  Es va posar a ploure.
  It began/started (to rain / raining).

pretendre+infinitiu = claim + infinitiu to
  No pretenc arribar a tot arreu.
  I don't claim to get everywhere.

provar de + infinitiu = try + infinitiu to
  Vaig provar de convèncer_lo.
  I tried to convince him.

quedar+participi = be+participi
  L'incendi ha quedat extingit.
  The fire has been put out.

quedar per + infinitiu = remain to be + participi
  Això queda per fer.
  This remains to be done.

resistir-se a + infinitiu = be reluctant + infinitiu to
  Es resisitia a admetre-ho.
  People were reluctant to admit it.
  Ella es resistia a creure'm.
  She was reluctant to believe me.

saber+infinitiu = know how + infinitiu to
  Saps jugar a escacs?
  Do you know how to play chess?

seguir+gerundi = continue+gerundi
  Segueixo fent les mateixes errades.
  I continue making the same mistakes.

semblar+infinitiu = seem + infinitiu to
  Tothom sembla saber-ho.
  Everyone seems to know it.

soler [pres.] + infinitiu = usually + verb
  Sol sortir a passejar cada divendres.
  He usually goes for a walk every Friday.

soler [imperf.] + infinitiu = used to + infinitiu
  Solia sortir a passejar cada divendres.
  He used to go for a walk every Friday.

tornar a + infinitiu = verb+again
  Tornarem a començar.
  We'll start again.

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